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Calcium

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Calcium
Calcium
Identification
Symbol
Ca
Block
s-Bloack
Group
Group 2
Period
Period 4
Atomic Information
Atomic Number
20
Atomic Radius
197 pm
Mass
40.078 u
Category
Akaline earth Metals
Standard state(298 K)
Solid
Electronic Configuration
[Ar]4s2
Electronegativity (Pauling)
1.00
Unknown
First ionisation energy
589.8 kJ/mol
Physical Properties
Color
Silvery
Melting Point
1115 K
Boiling Point
1757 K
Density of solid
1.55 g/cm3
Unknown
Heat Properties
Enthalpy of fusion
8.54 kJ/mol
Enthalpy of atomisation
Unknown
Enthalpy of vaporisation
154.7 kJ/mol
4
Be

Beryllium
12
Mg

Magnesium
20
Ca

Calcium
38
Sr

Strontium
56
Ba

Barium
88
Ra

Radium
FlametestCA

Flame test. Brick-red color originates from calcium.

Calcium is the 20th element in the Periodic table of elements and belongs to the Alkaline earth metal category. Calcium is a soft gray alkaline earth metal, fifth-most-abundant element by mass in the Earth's crust. The ion Ca+2 is also the fifth-most-abundant dissolved ion in seawater by both molarity and mass. Calcium is reactive and, for a metal, soft. With a bit of effort, it can be cut with a sharp knife. In contact with air, calcium develops a mixed oxide and nitride coating, which protects it from further corrosion. Calcium reacts easily with water and acids and the metal burns brightly in air, forming mainly the nitride.

History

Calcium was first isolated by Sir Humphry Davy in 1808 in London. In a lecture to the Royal Society in June 1808, Davy described his experiments that year, which produced tiny amounts of metal, at best. He could not find any way to produce more calcium metal until a letter from Jöns Berzelius in Stockholm pointed him in the right direction.

Davy learned that Berzelius and Magnus Pontin had used a battery to decompose calcium oxide at a mercury electrode and they had obtained an amalgam of mercury and calcium. (Berzelius, the great Swedish chemist, exchanged a great deal of information with Davy. Berzelius had earlier learned from Davy that potassium could be dissolved in mercury to form an amalgam. Berzelius had extended the method.)

Davy made a paste of slaked lime [calcium oxide, slightly moistened to form calcium hydroxide] and red oxide of mercury [mercury (II) oxide].

He made a depression in the paste and placed about 3.5 grams of mercury metal there to act as an electrode. Platinum was used as the counter electrode. Davy carried out the experiment under naptha (a liquid hydrocarbon under which he had found he could safely store potassium and sodium).

When electricity was passed through the paste, a calcium-mercury amalgam formed at the mercury electrode. Davy removed the mercury by distillation to reveal a new element: calcium. Davy used the same procedure to isolate strontium, barium, and magnesium. He named the metal calcium because of its occurrence in calx.

Uses

  • Calcium forms alloys with aluminum, beryllium, copper, lead, and magnesium.
  • It is used in the manufacture of other metals such as uranium and thorium.
  • Calcium is used to remove oxygen, sulfur and carbon from alloys.
  • Calcium from limestone is a vital component of Portland cement.
  • Quicklime(CaO) is used in many applications in the chemical industry, such as treatment of drinking water – especially for water softening and arsenic removal, animal waste and waste-water.

Videos

Calcium in Water01:06

Calcium in Water

Small piece of calcium in about 20ml of water

1
H
2
He
3
Li
4
Be
5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
11
Na
12
Mg
13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
19
K
20
Ca
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
37
Rb
38
Sr
39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
55
Cs
56
Ba
* 72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
87
Fr
88
Ra
** 104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Uut
114
Fl
115
Uup
116
Lv
117
Uus
118
Uuo


* 57
La
58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
71
Lu
** 89
Ac
90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
103
Lr

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