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There are many ways to express the concentration of a solution. Following are some of the basic stoichiometric formulae for calculating concentration of a solution.

Molarity

Molarity is a measure of concentration for solutions. The molarity of a solution is equal to the number of moles of solute divided by the number of Litres of solution. It is denoted by the letter 'M' in uppercase.

Mathematical Expression

Mathematically,  M = \frac{n}{V_L},

Where, n = number of moles of solute; VL = volume in litres.

Molality

Molality is a measure of concentration calculated by dividing the number of moles of solute by the number of kilograms of solvent. Mathematically,  m = \frac{n}{kilograms}

Normality

Normality is a measure of concentration calculated by dividing the number of gram equivalent of solute by the Volume of solvent in litres. It is denoted by the letter 'N'.

There's a relation between Normality and morality which is given by: N = xM; x = x-factor

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