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Lithium

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Lithium
Lithium
Identification
Symbol
Li
Block
S-Block
Group
Group 1
Period
Period 2
Atomic Information
Atomic Number
3
Atomic Radius
128 pm
Mass
6.941 Ar
Category
Standard state(298 K)
Solid
Electronic Configuration
1s2 2s1
Electronegativity (Pauling)
Unknown
Unknown
First ionisation energy
Unknown
Physical Properties
Color
Silver-White
Melting Point
453.65 K
Boiling Point
1603 K
Density of solid
Unknown
Unknown
Heat Properties
Enthalpy of fusion
Unknown
Enthalpy of atomisation
Unknown
Enthalpy of vaporisation
Unknown

Lithium is the third element in the periodic table according to its atomic number 3. It is a soft metal belonging to the alkali metal group. Lithium is highly reactive due to its monovalency(+1) and also very flammable.

Due to high reactivity, lithium never occurs in its free state form but instead exists in form of compounds which are usually ionic but can also be sometimes covalent. An interesting thing to note about lithium is that it has a very low density due to which it floats in water.

Properties

Since Lithium is a metal it has all the properties of a metal. Many of its physical and chemical properties are more similar to those of the alkaline earth metals than to those of its own group.

Between the most significant properties of lithium we find its high specific heat (calorific capacity), the huge temperature interval in the liquid state, high termic conductivity, low viscosity and very low density.

Lithium takes part in a huge number of reactions, with organic reactants as well as with inorganic reactants. It reacts with oxygen to form monoxide and peroxide. It’s the only alkaline metal that reacts with nitrogen at ambient temperature to produce a black nitrure. It reacts easily with hydrogen at almost 500ºC (930ºF) to form lithium hydride. Metallic lithium’s reaction with water is extremely vigorous. Lithium reacts directly with the carbon to produce the carbure.

Discovery

Petalite ore, which contained Lithium, was discovered in 1800 but Lithium wasn't yet claimed to be new element until 1817.

Application

The main lithium compound is the lithium hydroxide. It’s a white powder; the manufactured material is monohydrate lithium hydroxide. The carbonate can be used in the pottery industry and in medicine as an antidepressant. The bromine and the lithium chloride both form concentrated brine, which have the property of absorbing the humidity in a wide interval of temperature; these brines are used in the manufactured air conditioning systems.  The main industrial use of lithium is in lithium stearatum form, as lubricant grease’s thickener. Other important applications of lithium compounds are in pottery, specifically in porcelain glaze; as an additive to extend the life and performance of alkaline storage batteries and in autogenous welding and brass welding.Alloys of the metal with aluminiumcadmiumcopper, and manganese are used to make high performance aircraft parts.

1
H
2
He
3
Li
4
Be
5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
11
Na
12
Mg
13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
19
K
20
Ca
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
37
Rb
38
Sr
39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
55
Cs
56
Ba
* 72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
87
Fr
88
Ra
** 104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Uut
114
Fl
115
Uup
116
Lv
117
Uus
118
Uuo


* 57
La
58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
71
Lu
** 89
Ac
90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
103
Lr

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